Grammar & Its Importance in PSLE English\r\nEnglish Grammar is the lifeline of the subject. In fact, language cannot exist without grammatical rules, concepts, and nuances. However, it is not easy to learn English Grammar by memorisation. Like mathematics and Science, rote learning does not work for Grammar concepts. It can only be mastered through continuous writing, reading, and speaking in English.\r\n\r\nThis article focuses on the important Grammar concepts that Primary students need to hone before the actual PSLE Exam. Master these concepts and score full marks in PSLE English!\r\n6 English Grammar Concepts To Master for PSLE Exams\r\n1. Verbs with Tenses\r\n\r\nThe subject-verb agreement is a concept that's always tested in PSLE English. The general grammar concepts that you need to perfect in this subtopic are:\r\n\r\n \tPerfect Tenses\r\n\r\nPresent Perfect\r\n\r\nThe tricky part of Multiple-Choice Questions tests your ability to differentiate between simple past or present tenses with perfect tenses.\r\n\r\nWhat is a Present Perfect tense? It is a tense that denotes past actions that continue into the present. This tense is identified with the use of:\r\n\r\nHas\/ Have + Verb (Past participle)\r\n\r\nFor example: The dog has not been taken out for a walk since this morning.\r\nThe couple has been happily married for twenty years.\r\n\r\nPast Perfect\r\n\r\nThe Past Perfect tense indicates an action that was completed in the past before it was followed by another action. This tense is denoted by the use of:\r\n\r\nHad + Verb (Past participle)\r\n\r\nFor example: By the time we arrived, the train had left the station.\r\nLuckily, I had saved the document before my computer crashed.\r\n\r\nWhat we see in the above examples is the use of two verbs in one sentence that is set in the past. Here, the first verb or action is always denoted with the past perfect tense.\r\n\r\n2. Verbs of Perception \/ Obligation \/ Permission\r\n\r\nA verb of perception conveys the experience of one's senses like touch, hear, see, feel, look, watch, and taste. These verbs are denoted by:\r\n\r\nPast tense followed by an Object + infinitive without to or Object + ing form\r\nFor Example: Tina heard them laughing.\r\n\r\nVerbs of Permission\/ Obligation\r\n\r\nThese verbs are mostly preceded or followed by the words:\r\n\r\n \tCan't\r\n \tCan\r\n \tMusn't\r\n \tMust\r\n \tHave to\r\n \tDon't have to\r\n\r\nVerb Permission uses words like "Can", "May", and "Could."\r\n\r\nFor example:\r\n\r\nCan I make a suggestion?\r\nCould I borrow your car?\r\nYou may leave now.\r\n\r\nVerb Obligation\r\n\r\nTo express obligation, we use "Have to" and "Must." Here's where most students confuse one with the other. "Have to" denotes an external obligation.\r\n\r\nFor example: We have to wear our lab coats while working with chemicals.\r\n\r\nOn the other hand, "Must" denotes a necessity that comes from the speaker.\r\n\r\nFor example: I must go to the doctor today.\r\nYou must wear your seat belt while driving your car.\r\n\r\nNote that the verbs "Go" and "Wear' are used as such without "s", "ed", or "ing".\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n3. Multiword Phrases\r\n\r\nMultiword phrases denote the following:\r\n\r\nTogether with In addition to Not to mention As well as\r\n\r\nThese phrases are often used to trick students into thinking the subject-agreement is plural, which is not.\r\n\r\nFor example: Mary, as well as her friends, is going on a school excursion.\r\n\r\nIn a sentence like this, students often make the mistake of using "are" instead of "is", which is the correct verb because Mary is the only subject in this sentence.\r\n\r\n4. Either...or \/ Neither.....nor\r\n\r\nThese questions are often asked in PSLE English because students find it difficult to decide whether to choose singular or plural since the sentence usually contains more than one subject or noun.\r\n\r\nFor example: Neither Johnny nor his friends are good at horse riding.\r\n\r\nThe correct verb used in such a sentence is "Are" because of the Rule of Proximity. What is this "Rule of Proximity?" This rule is the practice of relying on the noun closest to the verb. Questions of this type should NOT be confused with Either\/Neither\/None questions! Often, they sound like they should carry plural verbs, but they are singular and carry singular verbs.\r\n\r\n5. Pronouns\r\n\r\nPSLE English question paper often has tricky questions that test students' knowledge of pronouns. Let's take a look at the important pronouns.\r\n\r\n \tReflexive pronouns\r\n\r\nWhat are Reflexive Pronouns? These pronouns include words like:\r\n\r\n \tItself\r\n \tMyself\r\n \tYourself\r\n \tHimself\r\n \tHerself\r\n\r\nThese pronouns refer back to a person, place, or thing. There are many classic examples of reflexive pronouns:\r\n\r\nAs the maid was on leave, Stacey had no choice but to do all the household work herself.\r\nThe snake wound itself on the tree branch and fell asleep.\r\nAlso Read : Stop Making These Common Mistakes in PSLE English\r\n\r\n \tDemonstrative Pronoun\r\n\r\nDemonstrative pronouns are words like " Who, Whom, Whose, This, That, Those, These." This list of words refers to specific people or things.\r\n\r\nThis and These refer to things or persons that are close to the speaker. That and Those, on the other hand, denote things or people far away from the speaker.\r\n\r\nFor example:\r\n\r\n \tThat house over there belongs to my aunt.\r\n \tThis geometry box is an old one.\r\n \tWho are those people standing on the balcony of your house?\r\n \tThese shrubs over here need to be pruned.\r\n\r\nPrimary students often confuse pronouns like Who, Whom, and Whose.\r\n\r\nHere are some simple tips to use these pronouns correctly in a sentence.\r\n\r\n \tWho is always followed by a verb.\r\n\r\nExample: Jenny, who is my daughter, is studying medicine.\r\n\r\n \tWhom is always followed by the name of a person, the pronoun, or their profession.\r\n\r\nExample: Mr John, whom we met last week, is a teacher.\r\n\r\n \tWhose is a possessive pronoun that indicates ownership.\r\n\r\nExample: She owns a house whose construction work has been going on for many years.\r\n\r\n6. Countable and Uncountable Nouns\r\n\r\nAs their names imply, countable nouns refer to a person, place, or thing that can be counted. Uncountable nouns denote anything that cannot be separated or counted individually. Uncountable nouns are also known as mass nouns and have no existing plural form.\r\n\r\nExample for countable nouns:\r\n\r\nThis basket has two dozen freshly-picked apples.\r\n\r\nExample of uncountable nouns:\r\n\r\n \tHow much homework do I have today?\r\n \tHow much sugar does this sweet require?\r\n \tThis paper has all the information you require.\r\n \tWhat is the Science equipment you have in school?\r\n\r\nPSLE English can be a tricky gauntlet of receptive pronouns, tenses, and multi-word prepositions. You can master these Grammar challenges by doing multiple grammar exercises every day.\r\nAcing PSLE English Grammar with StudySmart, Singapore\r\nStudySmart, our AI-powered online learning app, is an effective tool to scale your prowess in advanced English Grammar.